European society and art c. 1300-1600. The cultural underpinnings of the transition from a horizontally organized world of regional civilizations and their relatively isolated great traditions, to a more vertically organized modern world-system. Individualism and its manifestations. Aspects of wealth and public space in the maritime city-states of Italy. Religious and civic humanism. Concentrations of talent in architecture, painting and sculpture from Florence to Rome and Venice. The Church from the late Middle Ages into the Early Modern Era. Critical independence, the printing press, and anti-clericalism. Luther at Worms: authority vs the individual conscience. The Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation. Mannerism and the Baroque in Italy, Germany and northern Europe.