This course aims to consider what has counted as modern in art since the advent of the avant-garde in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. The changing relations between notions of modernity and the aims of artists and their works will be reviewed. The significance of movements in art, such as realism and impressionism, cubism and futurism, may be assessed. Students may expect to consider works by Courbet, Manet, Monet, Cézanne, Picasso, Braque, Matisse, Malevich, Mondrian, Duchamp. Notions of modernism in art will be examined as part of a consideration of the aims of modern art, social, political or otherwise.